Territory and Identity in IR Theory
Political Science 190.626
Johns Hopkins University
Professor Waleed Hazbun
358 Mergenthaler Hall
This seminar explores the role notions of territory and identity play in IR theory and how differences and boundaries of territory/identity shape the construction of "national" interests and guide the foreign policies of states. The first half of the course surveys constructivist, realist, poststructuralist, and critical geopolitical approaches and considers the formulation and practice of US foreign policy. The second half focuses on Middle East geopolitics, the Israeli/Palestinian conflict, and the changing geopolitical discourses driving US policy towards the region. In these weeks the emphasis of the course will be to interrogate the contingent interconnectedness of territory and identity as the foundational construction of the 'nation-state' unit and the international system of sovereign states. We conclude with a consideration of the possibilities for cosmopolitan geopolitical discourses and what role they can play in the reformulation of aspects of IR theory.
* Gearoid O Tuathail, Critical Geopolitics: The Politics of Writing Global Space (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996)
* Michael N. Barnett, Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998)
* David Campbell, Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998, revised edition)
* Marc Lynch, State Interests and Public Spheres: The International Politics of Jordan's Identity (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999)
* Shibley Telhami and Michael N. Barnett (eds.), Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002)
The required books listed above are available for purchase at the JHU Book Center. Most of the other material is accessible via electronic reserve. Material which has not made it onto electronic reserve will be available for photocopying in the Political Science office. You may also wish to purchase copies of the other books used in the course (used copies for many are available at amazon.com, addall.com, and other sites).
a. Each student is required to write a short (about 1-2 pages) summary and critique of the week's reading. These need not be comprehensive and you are free to focus on the issues and themes you are most interested in. The purpose of this exercise is to get you thinking about the material as well as help prepare you for comprehensive exams. These papers are due in class (hardcopies, please) and you are free to distribute them amongst yourselves. You are expected to do at least 10 (ten) of them (that is you can skip two weeks).
b. Each student is required to write either: i) two 12-15 page critical review essays addressing one or more weeks readings, or ii) a 25-30 page research paper on a topic related to one of the major themes of the course. (You are also welcome to write a political theory paper, such as addressing territory and identity in Carl Schmitt). If you are planning to do a research or theory paper, please submit for approval a short summary of your topic by the end of October. You will also be expected to give a short presentation (about 5-10 minutes) on your paper to the class. We have reserved time during the last session (December 4) for presentations, but you can also give your presentation during an earlier week when we read material most relevant to your paper.
September 4: Introduction
Part I: IR Theory and US Foreign Policy
September 11: The uses of borders: Territorial states, nationalism, and security
o Alexander Murphy, "The sovereign state system as political-territorial ideal: historical and contemporary considerations" in Thomas J. Biersteker and Cynthia Weber (eds.), State Sovereignty as Social Construct (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 81-120.
o John H. Herz, "Rise and demise of the territorial State," World Politics Vol. 9, No. 4. (July 1957): 473-493.
o David H. Kaplan and Guntram H. Herb, "Introduction: a question of identity," Guntram H. Herb, "National identity and territory," and David H. Kaplan, "Territorial identities and geographic scale," in Guntram H. Herb and David H. Kaplan (eds.) Nested Identities : Nationalism, Territory, and Scale (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999), pp. 1-49.
o Yosef Lapid and Friedrich Kratochwil, "Revisiting the "National": Toward an identity agenda in neorealism?" in Yosef Lapid and Friedrich Kratochwil (eds.) The Return of Culture and Identity in IR Theory (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996) pp. 105-126
o Malik Mufti, Sovereign Creations: Pan-Arabism and Political Order in Syria and Iraq (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996), pp. 1-16.
o Kim Rygiel, "Stabilizing Borders: The geopolitics of national identity construction in Turkey," in Gearoid O Tuathail and Simon Dalby (eds.), Rethinking Geopolitics (London: Routledge, 1998), pp. 106-130.
September 18: Identities, interests, and norms: sociological constructivism
o Alexander Wendt, "Anarchy is what states make of it: The social construction of power politics," International Organization 46, 2 (Spring 1992): 391-425.
o Peter J. Katzenstein (ed.) The Culture of National Security : Norms and Identity in World Politics (New York : Columbia University Press, 1996), pp, 1-75, 451-537.
o Rawi Abdelal, National Purpose in the World Economy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001), pp. 24-44.
September 25: National identity, power, and US foreign policy: realism & revisionism
o Henry R. Nau, At Home Abroad: Identity and Power in American Foreign Policy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002), pp. 1-85, 237-253
o Michael H. Hunt, Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), pp. 1-45, 125-198
October 2: US foreign policy and the politics of identity: post-structuralism
o David Campbell, Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998, revised edition).
o Iver B. Neuman, "Self and Other in International Relations," European Journal of International Studies Vol. 2, No. 2 (1996): 139-174.
October 9: The discursive construction of territory: critical geopolitics
o Gearoid O Tuathail, Critical Geopolitics: The Politics of Writing Global Space (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996).
o Alan K. Henrikson, "Mental Maps," in Michael J. Hogan and Thomas G. Peterson (eds.), Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 177-192.
Part II: Middle East Geopolitics
October 16: Identities as transnational institutions: Pan-Arabism and regional order
o Michael N. Barnett, Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998).
October 23: Territorial identities and state interests in the Middle East
o Shibley Telhami and Michael N. Barnett (eds.) Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002), pp. 1-25, 117-200.
o Steve Niva, "Contested Sovereignties and Postcolonial Insecurities in the Middle East," in Jutta Weldes et al. (eds.) Cultures of Insecurity (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), pp. 147-172.
o Fouad Ajami, "The End of Pan-Arabism," Foreign Affairs Vol. 57, No. 2 (Winter 1978/79): 355-373.
October 30: Territory, identity, and political discourse: The elastic boundaries of Jordan
o Marc Lynch, State Interests and Public Spheres: The International Politics of Jordan's Identity (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999).
o Joseph A. Massad, Colonial Effects: The Making of National Identity in Jordan (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), pp. 222-278.
o Laurie A. Brand, "Palestinians and Jordanians: A crisis of identity," Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 24, Issue 4 (Summer 1995): 46-61.
November 6: Identity construction and territorial conflict in Israel/Palestine
o David Newman, "Citizenship, Identity and Location: The changing discourse of Israeli geopolitics," in Klaus Dodds and David Atkinson (eds.), Geopolitical Traditions: A Century of Geopolitical Thought (London: Routledge, 2000) pp. 302-331.
o Yazid Sayigh, "War as Leveler, War as Midwife: Palestinian political institutions, nationalism, and society since 1948," in Steven Heydeman (ed.), War, Institutions, and Social Change in the Middle East (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), pp. 200-234
o David Newman, "Real Spaces, Symbolic Spaces: Interrelated Notions of Territory in Arab-Israeli Conflict," in P. Diehl (Ed.), A Road Map to War: Territorial Dimensions of International Conflict (Vanderbilt University Press, 1999), pp. 3-34.
o Oren Yiftachel, "Territory as the Kernel of the Nation: Space, Time and Nationalism in Israel/Palestine," Geopolitics Vol. 7, No. 2 (Autumn 2002): 215-248
o David Newman and Ghazi Falah, "Bridging the gap: Palestinian and Israeli discourses on autonomy and statehood," Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers ns 22, no. 1 (1997): 111-129
November 13: Shifting/Crossing boundaries of territory & identity in Israel/Palestine
o Michael Barnett, "Israeli Identity and the Peace Process: Re/creating the Un/thinkable," Shibley Telhami and Michael N. Barnett (eds.) Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002), pp. 58-87.
o David Newman, "From national to post-national territorial identities in Israel-Palestine" GeoJournal Vol. 53, No. 3 (2001): 235-246
o David Newman, "The geopolitics of peacemaking in Israel-Palestine," Political Geography Vol. 21 (2002): 629-646.
o Rhoda Kanaaneh, "Embattled Identities: Palestinian Soldiers in the Israeli Military" Journal of Palestine Studies Vol. 32, Issue 3 (Spring 2003): 5-20
o Dan Rabinowitz, "Postnational Palestine/Israel? Globalization, Diaspora, Transnationalism, and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," Critical Inquiry Vol. 26, No. 4 (Summer 2000): 757-772
o Rebecca L. Stein, "'First Contact' and Other Israeli Fictions: Tourism, Globalization, and the Middle East Peace Process," Public Culture Vol. 14, No. 3 (2002): 515-543
o Edward W. Said, "The One-State Solution," New York Times Magazine January 10, 1999
o Salim Tamari, "The Dubious Lure of Binationalism," Journal of Palestine Studies Vol. 30, Issue 1 (Autumn 2000): 83-87.
o See also: http://bostonreview.net/ndf.html#Binationalism
Part III: US Middle East Policy: Beyond Orientalism and realpolitik
November 20: Culture and geopolitical discourses in US Middle East policy
o Douglas Little, American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since 1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002) pp. 1-42, 117-155, 307-318.
o Melani McAlister, Epic Encounters: Culture, Media, and U.S. Interests in the Middle East, 1945-2000 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001) 1-42, 266-276.
o Anthony Lake, "Confronting Backlash States," Foreign Affairs Vol. 73, No. 2 (March/April 1994): 45-55.
o Samuel P. Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations?," Foreign Affairs Vol. 72, No. 3 (Summer 1993), pp. 22-49.
o Leon Hadar, "What Green Peril?" Foreign Affairs Vol. 72, No. 2 (Spring 1993): 27-42.
o Henry R. Nau, At Home Abroad: Identity and Power in American Foreign Policy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002), pp. 208-222.
o Philip H. Gordon, "Bush's Middle East Vision," Survival 45, 1 (Spring 2003):155-165
o Jack Shafer, "The PowerPoint That Rocked the Pentagon," http://politics.slate.msn.com/id/2069119/
Recommended: Richard Perle, et al "A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm" (June 1996) http://www.israeleconomy.org/strat1.htm; The White House, "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America" (September 2002) http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html
Part IV: Alternative Modes of Reterritorialization
December 4: Territory, identity, and cosmopolitan geographies in IR Theory
o Chris Brown "Borders and Identity in International Political Theory" in Mathias Albert, David Jacobson, Yosef Lapid, (eds.) Identities, Borders, Orders: Rethinking International Relations Theory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001) pp. 117-136.
o Daniel Deudney, "Ground Identity: Nature, Place, and Space in Nationalism," Yosef Lapid and Friedrich Kratochwil (eds.), The Return of Culture and Identity in IR Theory (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996) pp. 129-145.
o Arjun Appadurai, "Sovereignty without territoriality: notes for a postnational geography," in Patricia Yaeger, (ed.)The Geography of Identity (Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1996), pp. 40-58.
o Student presentations